There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but effective treatments and therapies such as physiotherapy, speech and language therapy, surgery and medication can help to improve the condition and reduce its impact on people’s lives.
Treatments for cerebral palsy aim to:
- Reduce pain
- Improve posture and movement
- Correct associated bone and joint conditions
- Correct associated medical conditions
- Improve communication, speech and language.
On diagnosis of cerebral palsy an NHS team, led by your paediatrician or doctor, will develop a detailed care plan that includes relevant mainstream treatments and therapies. This plan will be reviewed regularly. You may also wish to try alternative therapies after seeking advice from your paediatrician or doctor.
Below you can discover more about treatments available for people with cerebral palsy, depending on their condition:
What surgical options are available for people with cerebral palsy?
Orthopaedic surgery and selective dorsal rhizotomy are two types of surgery available to relieve the symptoms of cerebral palsy in some cases. You can find out more about these below.
Because of the risks associated with surgery and because its benefits may only be temporary, courses of physical therapy and medication are usually recommended first.
Surgery can be used to:
- Relieve pain and stiff muscles
- Improve balance, posture and range of movement
- Realign fixed joints and tendons
- Prevent contractures (permanently tightened muscles)
- Prevent hip dislocation and scoliosis (spinal curvature)
- Correct hip dislocations
- Correct scoliosis (spinal curvature)
- Correct urinary incontinence (as a result of surgery).
Your child will be monitored regularly for any problems that need to be corrected with surgery (such as spine and hip x-rays) and specialists will advise you on whether surgery is suitable.
Any surgery needs to be accompanied by regular physiotherapy for the full benefits to be realised. If successful, surgery can have the knock-on effect of improving a child’s confidence as they enjoy better posture and an increased range of movement.
Why is timing of surgery important?
Timing of surgery is very important. Problems with movement become more apparent as a child with cerebral palsy grows, and the primary issue may be harder to spot until the child is older. For example, knee deformities could be due to an imbalance in the hip, so early surgery on the knees would not be effective.
However, it’s important not to leave surgery too late when joint alignments and deformities are established. Your health specialists can advise you on this.
How does orthopaedic surgery help children with cerebral palsy?
Orthopaedic surgery is used to correct conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves). It includes various procedures that correct movement problems, reduce pain and increase the range of motion achieved in children with spasticity (stiff, tight muscles).
Performed at the right time, it can help prevent contractures and hip dislocations.
The procedures will vary depending on the areas of the body affected, including soft-tissue surgery (muscles and ligaments), bone surgery or both. Specific procedures include:
- Cutting tendons or muscles to relieve stiffness and tightening of muscles and joints (tenotomy/myotomy)
- Lengthening tendons and muscles to reduce painful contractures and permanent tightening
- Lengthening muscles in the hands and fingers to relieve tightness and improve fine motor skills, such as grasping objects
- Realigning joints for better posture and correcting hip dislocations.
How does selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) treat cerebral palsy?
Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical procedure that could help children who have spastic cerebral palsy. Specifically, it can help children with spasticity in their lower limbs that makes walking and sitting difficult, and who regularly experience painful spasms.
The procedure aims to reduce the amount of information carried by the sensory nerves by cutting selected nerves in the lower spine. Afterwards, a long course of physiotherapy and aftercare is required so that the child can relearn how to control their leg muscles.
The procedure cannot be reversed and there are several complications. Bladder function and walking ability may deteriorate (the child may have to learn to walk again with the help of physiotherapy) and spinal deformities may appear when the child is older. For these reasons, SDR is usually recommended only after other treatments for spasticity have failed.
How does physiotherapy treat cerebral palsy?
Physiotherapy is one of the most important therapies available to people with cerebral palsy and treatment will start when your child is diagnosed with the condition.
Physiotherapists give manual therapy to affected muscles using their hands, but also teach physical exercises that stretch and strengthen muscles. These exercises can also be done at home.
The aim of physiotherapy is to strengthen weak muscles, improve a person’s range of movement and physical ability, and reduce muscle stiffness that can lead to contractures (permanent shortening of the muscles). When shortened muscles don’t grow as fast as bones, it can lead to painful joint deformities in later life.
Physiotherapists also offer advice on using and caring for aids and orthoses, such as special arm and leg braces that help to stretch muscles.
How does speech and language therapy treat cerebral palsy?
A child with cerebral palsy will benefit from speech and language therapy if their condition affects the muscles in their neck, throat, face, jaw, mouth or tongue, or if they struggle to understand and interpret speech and language as a result of their brain injury, i.e. they have a learning difficulty or severe learning disability.
Being able to communicate with or without speech is vitally important for a child’s quality of life, learning and independence, so early intervention in the first three years of your child’s life is recommended. Assessments usually take place as soon as a language or speech delay is suspected.
A trained speech and language therapist can help a child with cerebral palsy to overcome the following problems:
- Coordinating and controlling muscles in the tongue, face, mouth and jaw
- Difficulty swallowing and breathing (dysphagia)
- Choking on food and drink
- Reduced ability or an inability to form sounds and words (aphasia)
- Difficulty with speech fluency and pitch
- Slurred speech
- The affects of a hearing and/or visual impairment
- Difficulty articulating and pronouncing words correctly
- Slow language development i.e. comprehending words and concepts.
The treatment your child will receive depends on the nature and severity of their condition, and will be tailored to their specific needs as they grow and develop. It could include:
- Practising specific sounds using language cards
- Using mirrors to show how mouth positions relate to specific sounds
- Lip, mouth, tongue and jaw exercises to help strengthen these muscles
- Word, sound and object association exercises using flashcards, puzzles and books
- Blowing exercises to improve breathing and breath control
- Using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods.
See also: Living with cerebral palsy for more information on communication aids.
How does occupational therapy treat cerebral palsy?
Occupational therapists give practical help and advice on carrying out everyday tasks (at home, school or work) that people with cerebral palsy might struggle with because of physical or cognitive difficulties.
For instance, an occupational therapist can assess your home and other environments, and advise on adaptations or specialist equipment that will make it easier to use the shower, get in or out of bed, go to the toilet or access a cupboard or facility, such as a phone.
Occupational therapists can also advise on better ways to carry out self-care tasks that require handling, such as eating, brushing teeth or getting dressed.
At school or in the community, they can advise on sitting at desks, using private or public transport and computers. They can also help children with cerebral palsy to access their interests, hobbies and activities.
Along with improving physical handling, occupational therapists can help with cognitive functioning, such as sequencing, reasoning, planning skills, setting goals, problem solving, memory and decision making, as these relate to achieving everyday tasks. An occupational therapist may also help a child or young person to learn to cope with everyday frustrations if they struggle to carry out these tasks.
Occupational therapy aims to help children with cerebral palsy to function to their best ability both at home and in the community. This is important, because being able to look after yourself and easily access amenities, education and hobbies is vital for a child’s sense of belonging, independence, self-esteem and quality of life.
See also Living with cerebral palsy for information on mobility aids, home adaptions and disabled facilities grants.
Is botox a suitable treatment for cerebral palsy?
Botox, or botulinum toxin A (BTA), is a safe and effective muscle relaxant used to treat certain conditions experienced by people with cerebral palsy. These conditions include:
- Spasticity (tight muscles)
- Fluctuations in muscle tone (alternating tight and floppy muscles)
- Dystonia (sustained awkward postures and repetitive movements)
- Associated urinary difficulties
- Associated pain, tremors and contractures (permanent shortening of muscles that can lead to bone and joint deformities)
- Difficulty controlling eye movement
- Post-operative muscle pain and spasm
BTA is usually used to treat people who have difficulty standing, walking or balancing because of tight calf and hamstring muscles (which make it difficult to straighten the leg or place feet flat on the ground).
It is also used to relax adductor (hip and groin) muscles that help to keep legs apart and therefore reduce the likelihood of hip dislocation in later life.
When injected into muscles in the arms, elbows, wrists and hands, it can improve fine motor skills, such as holding items.
When injected into the salivary glands, it can reduce drooling.
Botox or BTA treatment is administered with a local or general anaesthetic depending on individual circumstances. Benefits can be felt within a few days and last several months. Common side effects are mild and short-lived.
Accompanying physiotherapy is recommended, and the treatment can be repeated every 6-9 months. Used early enough, it could reduce the need for orthopaedic surgery later on in life.
BTA may not be an appropriate treatment for everyone (your child’s health professionals can assess and advise), and the treatment may or may not be funded by your local NHS clinical commissioning group.
Is intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) a suitable treatment for cerebral palsy?
Baclofen is a drug used to relieve muscle stiffness in people with spastic cerebral palsy. It can be taken orally, but for some people, this can produce undesired side effects, such as sickness and confusion.
To minimise the side effects, smaller, controlled doses can be administered directly into the spinal fluid by a pump implanted under the skin around the waist and connected through tubes to the spinal cord. The pump can be programmed to deliver the required dosage at specific times of the day. Accompanying physiotherapy is required.
The benefits of the treatment include a reduction in stiffness and therefore improved movement and muscle control. It could also prevent future contractions (permanent shortening of muscles) and hip problems if the therapy is given at the right time. Side effects can include hypotonia (loose/floppy muscles), sickness, drowsiness, confusion, headaches and dizziness. The surgical procedure can carry risks, and there are risks associated with caring for the pump.
This treatment may or may not be provided by your local NHS clinical commissioning group. It can be given to children as young as five.
What other medications exist to treat spasticity in cerebral palsy?
- Baclofen in tablet/liquid form can be taken but side effects can include drowsiness, feeling sick, clumsiness, confusion.
- Diazapam can be taken in liquid or tablet form for the relief of muscle pain and stiffness but only in the short-term for fast results. Side effects can include drowsiness, clumsiness, confusion, slurred speech.
- Tinazidine is an alternative to Diazapam with similar side effects but with the risk of liver damage.
- Dantrolene is an alternative to Diazapam and Tizanidine with similar side effects, but with the risk of liver damage.